The monuments of culture, like all living things, are subject to aging. This process is unstoppable, but it can be slowed, stopped, the monument may be brought back to life. This is the task of restoration. Restoration – is strengthening and reconstruction of destroyed, damaged or distorted historical and cultural monuments in order to preserve their historical and artistic value.
Furniture, as a result of human creative activity of different historical epochs, is a monument of material culture society, it is reflected in the conditions of life, customs and tastes of the people, it characterizes the level of technology, gives us information about the materials and production methods in a specific historical period in this country.
As in any other subject or product of applied art, furniture are used a variety of materials and processing methods, and as of genres and techniques not only of the applied arts, and other the so-called “big” art forms, Painting on porcelain and lacquer, molding and embossing on metal, sculpture bone and wood, tapestry, and embossed leather, precious stones, shell turtle, pearl – all in harmony in the furniture, the best artistic designs that adorn the museum collections and galleries around the world.
We note with interest and pleasure to look at examples of antique furniture museums, love and appreciate her because she is beautiful and is an important document of its time. However, what we see in museums – it is only modest particle-rich furniture art of the past. Collection times consist of furniture, which has been preserved by chance, thanks to a happy circumstances. That came to us, often in a deplorable condition. To revive this treasure and make it public domain – task master restorers.
Art Restoration Furniture is known for a long time. Even in the XVII and XVIII centuries. well-known masters of furniture along with the creation of new products restored old furniture, often while recasting it in accordance with the fashion of his time. At that time, the furniture treated as a purely utilitarian objects or decorative, it does not saw the monument of culture and sought to preserve it in its original.
In the XIX century. there were already large firms engaged in the restoration of old furniture. This is due to the development of machine production of furniture, crisis crafts, the market cheap, but the rude and imperfect products made by machine. Genuine antique furniture was rarity, it began to appreciate and restore. However, in this period when allowed the restoration of transformation and distortion of the furniture. At restoring furniture restorer of a certain style in the case of loss individual elements made up for them by their taste and their notions of this style.
In the second half of XIX century. , a new understanding of the problems of restoration:
restoring the original appearance of the monument to the prior study the works of furniture art relevant period. Loss have to compensate by copying the remaining parts or similar items. However, due to the prevalence of private Restoration of collectibles in this period is mainly intended commercial purposes, therefore, along with the restoration of original existed and forgery and distortion. Private restorer sought increase the amount of work to do as new furniture.
At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. formed the basis of scientific restoration of museum exhibits most fully developed in respect of monuments architecture, monumental and easel painting. The creation of the
theory of scientific restoration of cultural monuments made by the Soviet architects, artists and art historians. The basic principles of this theory secured the Venice Charter of the II International Congress of Architects and technicians (1964), as well as a number of decisions of international Organizations on the Protection and Restoration of Monuments (UNESCO, etc.). Chief of the these principles is that restored by a cultural monument regarded primarily as a historical document, and value which only increases with time, so it is distortion or modifications are not allowed. Restoration actions should be directed mainly on the strengthening, preservation of the monument.
As for the furniture, the theoretical foundations of scientific restoration currently under development. Practical Restoration based mainly on traditional methods and techniques. As in the second half of XIX century., for the majority of the restorations is restoration of objects as monuments of art furniture. At the same time with the to “improve” the exposition of the form of its subject matter is often practiced renovations, which sometimes adversely affects its condition.
In recent years, many countries have increased interest in cultural history, the problems of preservation and restoration of works of art, including arts and crafts and, in particular furniture. This trend is particularly true for our country, where the preservation of cultural monuments has become a popular thing. Everywhere revive historical and architectural monuments destroyed by war, restored the old and creating new memorial museums of outstanding people of our country – writers, artists, public figures, scientists. The interiors of these museums should fill furniture, which is also in need of restoration.
Master the art of furniture restoration is not easy. It requires Master artist of high culture, a certain artistic
training, extensive knowledge of the history of art and furniture technology, perfect the technique of handling a variety of materials used in furniture.